Introduction To Philosophy 9, 10, 11 practice test

Discipline: Medical Sciences (Anatomy, Physiology, Pharmacology etc.)

Type of Paper: Question-Answer

Academic Level: Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)

Paper Format: APA

Pages: 1 Words: 275


Introduction To Philosophy 9, 10, 11 practice test

Maintaining a hypothesis in the face of mounting negative evidence is... unreasonable

Science seeks to acquire knowledge and understanding of reality through the formula and evaluating of  theories

Something is logically impossible if  it violates a principle of logic

When people cannot think of a natural explanation for an extraordinary experience, they often conclude that the explanation must be paranormal

When scientists ask, if this hypothesis were true, what consequences would follow? they are trying to identify a test implication

The standards used to judge the worth of scientific theories are known as the criteria of adequacy

Evolution has yielded some novel predictions true

Hypotheses are created just as works of art are created

Generally, nonintervention studies cannot establish cause & effect relationships

The last step in the scientific method is to accept of reject the hypothesis true

Generally eyewitness testimony pertaining to paranormal phenomena is unreliable

Just because you can't think of a natural explanation doesn't mean there isn't one true

The art of cold reading can appear to be paranormal true

The theory that crop circles are made by extraterrestrial beings is not simple

Modus tollens represents the logic of hypothesis testing

Before applying the criteria of adequacy to a theory, we must make sure of it meets the minimum requirement of consistency

A theory with scope is one that explains or predicts phenomena other than which it was introduced to explain

Other things being equal, the best theory is the one that fits best with our established beliefs true

In inference to the best explanation, we reason from premises about a state of affairs to an explanation for that state of affairs true

Scientists always reject theories that conflict with their established beliefs false

A good strategy for evaluating theories to weigh the evidence for each theory, and with the most evidence wins false

If a theory is externally inconsistent, we have reason to believe that it is false

The logical pattern for inference to the best explanation is (1) Phenomenon Q. (2) E provides the best explanation for Q. Therefore (3) it is probable that E is true true
The best theory is the eligible theory that meets the criteria of adequacy better than any of it's competitors 

Fruitfulness refers to the number of novel predictions made

A theory that fits with our established beliefs is conservative

A fruitful theory is one that makes novel predictions

Atheory that is internally consistent is free of contradictions

Inference to the best explanation is only used in science false

The main problem with most conspiracy theories is that they fail the criterion of simplicity

Ethical egoism is the view that moral judgements are relative to what each society believes false

The data that moral theories try to explain are
our considered moral judgements
An important criterion for judging our worldview is 
internal consistency

Moral arguments differ from nonmoral ones in that their conclusions are moral statements true

According to the text, moral agents should strive to achieve a reflective equilibrium between facts and theory true

According to the text, if the theories that make up our worldview are inconsistent with one another, there is something wrong with our worldview true

Cultural relativism says that an action is right if it
is approved by ones culture

One of three criteria for judging the worth of moral theories is consistency with
considered moral judgements

Both plausible scientific theories and plausible moral theories must be conservative true

A set of beliefs and theories that help us make sense of a wide range of issues in life is known as  worldview

The view that moral statements are not statements at all is called emotivism

Moral judgements are usually justified by appeals to general moral principles

Good worldviews will, as a minimum requirement, consist of good theories true

The work of building a plausible worldview will always involve eliminating inconsistencies

In a standard moral argument, it is not possible to establish the conclusion without a moral premise

Both creationism and evolution are testable

Science is an ideology false

The conditional argument that expresses the logical pattern of disconfirming a hypothesis is called modus tollens

Subjective relativism implies that each person is 
morally infallible

The moral fault theory of disease is untestable true

In inference to the best explanation, if an explanation is the best among competitors, then the argument is
inductively strong

If a theory predicts something other than what it was introduced to explain, it is testable?