Archive for April 24, 2013

Experiment 2: Intensity of Emissions from a Black Body and Greenhouse Gases

Introduction
In this experiment, we will observe how to use an infrared video camera to create an image of the objects and the gasses emitted. We will compare the emissions from hot air and from hot air with Carbon Dioxide. We then contrast the rates of transmission and absorption of safety plastic glasses in visible and inferred wavelengths.
Back ground
A Greenhouse gas emits and absorbs inferred photons. An inferred camera is very sensitive to radiation in the 7.5 to 13 micron wavelength band. The IR camera is not sensitive enough to capture emissions from heated air, but can easily capture heated air with large CO2 content.
Objectives
1. Study the relationship between the emission from the blackened machine screw and its temperature
2. Look for infrared emissions from air heated by a heat gun
3. Study the impact on infrared emissions of adding CO2 to the air heated by the heat gun
4. Study the impact on infrared emissions of adding water to the air heated by the heat gun
5. Study the transmission and absorption of infrared and visible radiation by safety glasses. Look at the pictures of the TA wearing safety glasses acquired using visible and infrared wavelengths
Requirements
Heat Gun
FLIR Infrared Camera
CO2 fire extinguisher
Water bottle with spray attachments
Blackened Machine Screw and lab stand
Type T Thermocouple and HP 34970A Data Acquisition and Switch Unit (DASU)
Safety glasses and volunteer
Procedure
Heat the screw using the heat gun at 1590 C then Infar it using the FLIR Infrared Camera. Set the camera on manual. To measure the emissions when CO2 is present, heat the air then spray the heat gun with Co2 gas from the fire extinguisher. Heat the air around the heat gun then spray water onto the heat gun and record the observations.
Results
The inferred emissions are measured in Watts/ M2. The intensity of the visibility through the inferred camera increases as temperature increases. The greater the emissions on the inferred camera the greater the radiation. The screw gets hot when probed with an air stream. The intensity of radiation decreases as temperature reduces.
At room air only, there is no emission of IR, but in the presence of CO2 gas, IR emissions are present. The iron rod gets hot when probed with hot air. We observe emissions when water is sprayed on the heat gun at a high temperature.
Analysis
1. Discuss the relationship between the intensity of emissions (power per square meter) in the infrared from the blackened machine screw and the temperature of the screw. Discuss the specific temperature and colors observed. Discuss the interpretation of the false color using the false color scale.
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The higher the temperature the greater the intensity of emissions radiated on the infrared At 159o C, the intensity of emissions by the screw is high but a decrease in temperature to 26.6o C causes a relative decrease in intensity of emissions. The blue color on the color scale indicates low intensity while red indicates high intensity.
2. Compare the observed emission in the infrared of the hot air with the emissions of hot air with added CO2
Hot air emits less radiation than hot air with CO2.
3. Compare the observed emission in the infrared of the hot air with the emissions of hot air with added water
The addition of water to the hot air causes an increase in the emissions in the infrared.
4. Contrast the transparency of the safety glasses for infrared and visible radiation. Describe how you know that the glasses behave differently in these two different regions of the spectrum.
Under the infrared camera, the safety glasses emit a high radiation in the infrared and a lower radiation in the visible. In the infrared, the glasses are translucent.
5. Greenhouse gases absorb and emit in the infrared. It is a principle in the discipline of Radiation Heat Transfer that good emitters are good absorbers. Do your observations lead you to think that CO2 qualifies as a greenhouse gas? Explain.
Yes. CO2 qualifies as a greenhouse gas due to the fact that it emits a high radiation in the infrared.
Conclusion
The amount of energy radiated by a solid depends on its temperature. We cannot see the inferred emissions of air at room temperature. CO2 is a greenhouse gas.

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Critical evaluation of leadership

There are many practices in the world that have always been carried out in the same ways as they were done when invented. They have come to be known as conventions. However, not every sector requires conventions. There are a lot of emerging situations that these conventions cannot handle unless they are modified to suit the demands of that particular situation. Through constant evaluation, organizations have managed to come up with flexible ways that can be used to take on some of the challenges they face in the competitive world that they are in.
Different organizations have different structures but one outstanding similarity is that there is always a leadership at the top. The leadership of any organization is always put at the top because it is the body that is concerned with the entire running of the company, it can be likened to the human brain. It is the center of instructions and decision making. Without proper leadership, many companies and or organizations would not be what they are now.
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For this reason, a critical evaluation of leadership is a must conduct for any organization that wants to stay ahead of its competitors.
It is not only critical evaluation but constant evaluation of the leadership of an organization that will get an organization in shape. There are certain attributes that constitute a good leader and leadership for that. It is these qualities that must be put in check. Over the world there are some qualities that are considered universal and most leaders if not all must show them. It is thus important to evaluate the leader to ascertain that the leadership he/she pronounces is effective and active.

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